1. Ahmed A, Simmons Z. Pseudobulbar affect: prevalence and management. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2013;9:483-489.
  2. American Diabetes Association. Statistics about diabetes: overall numbers, diabetes, and prediabetes. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=psych/ 89994&view=print&source=graphics_search&rank=0&search=depression+and+DSM&popup=true. Accessed November 24, 2015.
  4. Brooks BR, Crumpacker D, Fellus J, Kantor D, Kaye RE. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions. PLoS One. 2013;8:e72232.
  5. Capon DA, Bochner F, Kerry N, Mikus G, Danz C, Somogyi AA. The influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism and quinidine on the disposition and antitussive effect of dextromethorphan in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60:295-307.
  6. Carpenter CL, Marks SS, Watson DL, Greenberg D. Dextromethorphan and dextrorphan as calcium channel antagonists. Brain Res. 1988;439:372-375.
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV infection—United States. 2008—2012. MMWR. 2015;64:657-662.
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): prevalence. http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/rheumatoid.htm. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  9. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Minimum data set (MDS) active resident information report. Third quarter, 2010.
  10. Cobos EJ, Entrena JM, Nieto FR, Cendán CM, Del Pozo E. Pharmacology and therapeutic potential of sigma1 receptor ligands. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2008;6:344-366.
  11. Codd EE, Shank RP, Schupsky JJ, Raffa RB. Serotonin and norepinephrine uptake Inhibiting activity of centrally acting analgesics: structural determinants and role in antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995;274:1263-1270.
  12. Colamonico J, Cormella A, Bradley W. Pseudobulbar affect: burden of illness in the USA. Adv Ther. 2012;29:775-798.
  13. Crumpacker DW, Engelman WA. Identifying pseudobulbar affect in Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. US Neurol. 2014;10:10-14.
  14. Cummings JL, Arciniegas DB, Brooks BR, et al. Defining and diagnosing involuntary emotional expression disorder. CNS Spectr. 2006;11(6):1-7.
  15. Cummings J, Gilbart J, Andersen G. Pseudobulbar affect—a disabling but under-recognised consequence of neurological disease and brain injury. Eur Neurol Rev. 2013;8:74-81.
  16. Damaj MI, Flood P, Ho KK, May EL, Martin BR. Effect of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan on nicotine and neuronal nicotinic receptors: in vitro and in vivo selectivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;312:780-785.
  17. Data on file. Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  18. Fonda JR, Hunt PR, McGlinchey RE, et al. Identification of pseudobulbar affect symptoms in veterans with possible traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2015;52:839-850.
  19. Gillman PK. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:434-441.
  20. Grace AA, Cam JA. Quinidine. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(1):35-45.
  21. Hammond FM, Alexander DN, Cutler AJ, et al. PRISM II: an open-label study to assess effectiveness of dextromethorphan/quinidine for pseudobulbar affect in patients with dementia, stroke or traumatic brain injury. BMC Neurology. 2016;16:89.
  22. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. ICD-10-CM Classification Enhancements. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/icd/10cmguidelines_2016_Final.pdf. Accessed July 21, 2016.
  23. Jaffe DB, Marks SS, Greenberg D. Antagonist drug selectivity for radioligand binding sites on voltage-gated and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-gated Ca2+ channels. Neurosci Lett. 1989;105:227-232.
  24. Lieberman A, Benson FD. Control of emotional expression in pseudobulbar palsy: a personal experience. Arch Neurol. 1977;34:717-719.
  25. Maurice T, Urani A, Phan VL, Romieu P. The interaction between neuroactive steroids and the sigma-1 receptor function: behavioral consequences and therapeutic opportunities. Brain Res Rev. 2001;37:116-132.
  26. Maurice T, Su TP. The pharmacology of sigma-1 receptors. Pharmacol Ther. 2009;124:195-206.
  27. Meoni P, Tortella FC, Bowery NG. An autoradiographic study of dextromethorphan high-affinity binding sites in rat brain: sodium-dependency and colocalization with paroxetine. Br J Pharmacol. 1997;120:1255-1262.
  28. Miller A, Pratt H, Schiffer RB. Pseudobulbar affect: the spectrum of clinical presentations, etiologies and treatments. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11:1077-1088.
  29. Moore SR, Gresham LS, Bromberg MB, Kasarkis EJ, Smith RA. A self report measure of affective lability. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;63:89-93.
  30. Netzer R, Pflimlin P, Trube G. Dextromethorphan blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced currents and voltage-operated inward currents in cultured cortical neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;238:209-216.
  31. NUEDEXTA [package insert]. Aliso Viejo, CA: Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc; 2010.
  32. Pioro EP, Brooks BR, Cummings J, et al. Dextromethorphan plus ultra low-dose quinidine reduces pseudobulbar affect. Ann Neurol. 2010;68(5):693-702.
  33. Pope LE, Khalil MH, Berg JE, Stiles M, Yakatan GJ, Sellers EM. Pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan after single or multiple dosing in combination with quinidine in extensive and poor metabolizers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;44(10):1132-1142.
  34. Rottenberg J, Gross JJ, Wilhelm FH, Najmi S, Gotlib IH. Crying threshold and intensity in major depressive disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2002;111:302-312.
  35. Schadel M, Wu D, Otton S V, Kalow W, Sellers EM. Pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and metabolites in humans: influence of the CYP2D6 phenotype and quinidine inhibition. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995;15(5):263-269.
  36. Smith RA, Berg JE, Pope LE, Thisted RA. Measuring pseudobulbar affect in ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2004;5(suppl 1):99-102.
  37. Smith RA, Berg JE, Pope LE, Thisted RA. Measuring pseudobulbar affect in ALS. Mult Scler. 2004;10:679-685.
  38. Su TP, Hayashi T, Maurice T, Buch S, Ruoho AE. The sigma-1 receptor chaperone as an inter-organelle signaling modulator. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010;31:557-566.
  39. US Food and Drug Administration. October 2010. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/informationondrugs/ucm233653.pdf. Accessed July 19, 2016.
  40. US Pharmacopeial Convention. USP Medicare Model Guidelines v6.0 (with example Part D drugs)—PDF. http://www.usp.org/sites/default/files/usp_pdf/EN/uspmmg_v6_0_w_exampledrugs_rev140415.pdf. Revised April 21, 2014. Accessed July 21, 2016.
  41. Werling LL, Lauterbach EC, Calef U. Dextromethorphan as a potential neuroprotective agent with unique mechanisms of action. Neurol. 2007;13(5):272-293.
  42. Wilson SAK. Some problems in neurology. J Neurol Psychopathol. 1924;4(16):299-333.
  43. Work SS, Colamonico JA, Bradley WG, Kaye RE. Pseudobulbar affect: an under-recognized and under-treated neurological disorder. Adv Ther. 2011;28(7):586-601.
  44. Wortzel HS, Oster TK, Anderson CA, Arciniegas DB. Pathological laughing and crying: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. CNS Drugs. 2008;22(7):531-545.
  45. Zarowitz BJ, O’Shea T. Clinical, behavioral, and treatment differences in nursing facility residents with dementia, with and without pseudobulbar affect symptomatology. Consult Pharm. 2013;28:713-722.
  46. Zhou GZ, Musacchio JM. Computer-assisted modeling of multiple dextromethorphan and sigma binding sites in guinea pig brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991;206:261-269.